Reprinted with permission of Logos International. Recently, though, computers have become so widespread in schools and homes and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers must now begin to think about the implications of computers for language learning. This article provides brief overview of how computers have been used and are being used for language teaching. It focuses not on a technical description of hardware and software, but rather on the pedagogical questions that teachers have considered in using computers in the classroom.
History[ edit ] CALL dates back to the s, when it was first introduced on university mainframe computers.
Dozens of CALL programs are currently available on the internet, at prices ranging from free to expensive,  and other programs are available only through university language courses. There have been several attempts to document the history of CALL.
Most of these early programs still exist in modernised versions.
Since the s, it has become increasingly difficult to categorise CALL as it now extends to the use of blogswikissocial networkingpodcastingWeb 2.
Rather than focusing on the typology of CALL, they identified three historical phases of CALL, classified according to their underlying pedagogical and methodological approaches: At first, both could be done only through text. The computer would analyse students' input and give feedback, and more sophisticated programs would react to students' mistakes by branching to help screens and remedial activities.
While such programs and their underlying pedagogy still exist today, behaviouristic approaches to language learning have been rejected by most language teachers, and the increasing sophistication of computer technology has led CALL to other possibilities.
It also allows for originality and flexibility in student output of language. The communicative approach coincided with the arrival of the PC, which made computing much more widely available and resulted in a boom in the development of software for language learning.
The first CALL software in this phase continued to provide skill practice but not in a drill format—for example: In this phase, computers provided context for students to use the language, such as asking for directions to a place, and programs not designed for language learning such as Sim CitySleuth and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
Criticisms of this approach include using the computer in an ad hoc and disconnected manner for more marginal aims rather than the central aims of language teaching.
It also coincided with the development of multimedia technology providing text, graphics, sound and animation as well as Computer-mediated communication CMC. CALL in this period saw a definitive shift from the use of the computer for drill and tutorial purposes the computer as a finite, authoritative base for a specific task to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom.
Restricted CALL — mainly behaviouristic: Open CALL — i. Integrated CALL — still to be achieved. Bax argued that at the time of writing language teachers were still in the Open CALL phase, as true integration could only be said to have been achieved when CALL had reached a state of "normalisation" — e.
Flashcards[ edit ] A basic use of CALL is in vocabulary acquisition using flashcardswhich requires quite simple programs. Such programs often make use of spaced repetitiona technique whereby the learner is presented with the vocabulary items that need to be committed to memory at increasingly longer intervals until long-term retention is achieved.
This has led to the development of a number of applications known as spaced repetition systems SRS including the generic Anki or SuperMemo package and programs such as BYKI  and phase-6,  which have been designed specifically for learners of foreign languages.
Software design and pedagogy[ edit ] Above all, careful consideration must be given to pedagogy in designing CALL software, but publishers of CALL software tend to follow the latest trend, regardless of its desirability.
Moreover, approaches to teaching foreign languages are constantly changing, dating back to grammar-translationthrough the direct methodaudio-lingualism and a variety of other approaches, to the more recent communicative approach and constructivism Decoo Major CALL development projects are usually managed by a team of people: A subject specialist also known as a content provider — usually a language teacher — who is responsible for providing the content and pedagogical input.
More than one subject specialist is required for larger CALL projects. A programmer who is familiar with the chosen programming language or authoring tool.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
English Language Proficiency requirement.
English is the language of instruction at UFV. UFV recognizes that applicants must have a level of English sufficient to participate and be successful in the learning process.
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Credit Divisions and Departments. Teaching English Through Games yunusemremert.com: An excellent website full of flash based games focused on practicing, and increasing, vocabulary. The games are suitable to all age and skill levels. An important feature of education has been its use of physical and intellectual tools.
Computers, no doubt, represent a truly generic tool. This article throws light on the advantages and disadvantages of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in current ESL classrooms.