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Segment 1, 2, 3. But suppose Segment 2 was lost somewhere on the network while Segment 3 stills reached the client. Client checks Segment 3 and realizes Segment 2 was missing so it can only acknowledge that it received Segment 1 successfully.
Client received Segment 1 and 3 so it creates two ACKs 1 to alert the server that it has not received any data beyond Segment 1. Therefore the server only needs to resend Segment 2 only.
Now the server will continue sending Segment 4, 5, … The SACK option is not mandatory and it is used only if both parties support it. It also provides enhanced support for TCP sessions associated with applications, such as Telnet, web browsing, and transfer of audio and video data that are sensitive to delay or packet loss.
The benefit of this feature is the reduction of delay and packet loss in data transmissions. Because the time stamps are always sent and echoed in both directions and the time-stamp value in the header is always changing, TCP header compression will not compress the outgoing packet.
If a response packet a TCP ACK packet is not received after the device sends a specific number of probes, the connection is considered dead and the device initiating the probes frees resources used by the TCP connection.
Question 4 Explanation Global synchronization occurs when multiple TCP hosts reduce their transmission rates in response to congestion. But when congestion is reduced, TCP hosts try to increase their transmission rates again simultaneously known as slow-start algorithmwhich causes another congestion.
Global synchronization produces this graph: Global synchronization reduces optimal throughput of network applications and tail drop contributes to this phenomenon. When an interface on a router cannot transmit a packet immediately, the packet is queued.
Packets are then taken out of the queue and eventually transmitted on the interface. But if the arrival rate of packets to the output interface exceeds the ability of the router to buffer and forward traffic, the queues increase to their maximum length and the interface becomes congested.
Tail drop is the default queuing response to congestion. Tail drop treats all traffic equally and does not differentiate among classes of service.
This can increase latency and lower the overall throughput. Question 6 Question 8 Explanation If the speed of an interface is equal or less than kbps half of a T1 linkit is considered a low-speed interface.
The half T1 only offers enough bandwidth to allow voice packets to enter and leave without delay issues. Therefore if the speed of the link is smaller than kbps, it should not be configured with a queue. Question 9 Explanation First we need to understand about bandwidth-delay product.
You can think the link between two devices as a pipe. The cross section of the pipe represents the bandwidth and the length of the pipe represents the delay the propagation delay due to the length of the pipe.
The volume of the pipe is also the BDP. As you know, a disadvantage of TCP is it has to wait for an acknowledgment from the receiver before sending another data. The waiting time may be very long and we may not utilize full bandwidth of the link for the transmission.
Based on BDP, the sending host can increase the number of data sent on a link usually by increasing the window size. In other words, the sending host can fill the whole pipe with data and no bandwidth is wasted.
July 30th, digitaltut 18 comments Question 1 Explanation Unlike TCP which uses the sequence numbers to rearrange the segments when they arrive out of order, UDP just passes the received datagrams to the next OSI layer the Session Layer in the order in which they arrived. Question 2 Question 3 Explanation In Asymmetric routing, a packet traverses from a source to a destination in one path and takes a different path when it returns to the source.
This is commonly seen in Layer-3 routed networks. Issues to Consider with Asymmetric Routing Asymmetric routing is not a problem by itself, but will cause problems when Network Address Translation NAT or firewalls are used in the routed path.
For example, in firewalls, state information is built when the packets flow from a higher security domain to a lower security domain. The firewall will be an exit point from one security domain to the other. If the return path passes through another firewall, the packet will not be allowed to traverse the firewall from the lower to higher security domain because the firewall in the return path will not have any state information.
The state information exists in the first firewall.
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