The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al.
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Course content Course content Factors that influence health: An introduction This free course is available to start right now.
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Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation. Free course Factors that influence health: An introduction 6 General social and environmental conditions Neo-materialist explanations focus on the way in which adverse socioeconomic and psycho-social environments, and the health-damaging mechanisms associated with them, are socially constructed.
Concurring with this, Link and Phelan argue that social conditions remain fundamentally important to health and moreover that: For example, in recent years the need to provide health and social care for an increasingly ageing population has worried many governments.
The potential for individuals to outlive their financial resources, for intergenerational antagonism and for problems with quality of life in older age are also concerns.
Many commentators have also expressed concerns with increasing environmental degradation and the impact of this on both physical and mental health.
For example, a study of depression and neighbourhood in New York City Galea et al. Other psycho-social research has also identified a relationship between environment and mental health or wellbeing.
For example, it is well documented that certain spaces and places can promote a fear of violence and crime. Frumkinhowever, suggests that the focus should be on the salutogenic effects of a closer relationship to nature, rather than on traditional public health concerns.
Drawing on the biophilia thesis the notion that human beings have an innate affinity with natureFrumkin focuses on the four domains of nature and the way in which each of these can enhance health see Box 7.
Box 7 The four domains of nature Animals Pet ownership may improve physical and mental health. Plants It is suggested that plants make places more pleasant and convivial, reduce stress and, possibly, promote healing Landscapes Natural landscapes are thought to reduce stress. Some research on this has been carried out in dental care and prisons.
Wilderness This refers to being in the landscape, rather than just viewing it. Wilderness therapy has been used with people with mental health problems. Adapted from Frumkin, Thinking point: If you think about some of the settings that are familiar to you, it is easy to see how some of these ideas are evident in everyday practice.Infant Mental Health A Definition.
In young children, mental health means healthy social and emotional development, defined as "the developing capacity of the young child to experience, regulate, and express emotions; form close and secure interpersonal relationships; and explore the environment and learn, in the context of a caregiving environment that includes family, community, and cultural.
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, as it may have limited value for implementation.
Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical, mental and social challenges throughout life. Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals.
Most home health aides and personal care aides work in clients’ homes; others work in small group homes or larger care communities. Some visit four or five clients in the same day, and others only work with one client all day—in some cases staying with one client on a long-term basis.
We support ministers in leading the nation’s health and social care to help people live more independent, healthier lives for longer. DHSC is a ministerial department, supported by 28 agencies.
San Francisco VA Health Care System provides health care services to veterans in northern California.