The new madrid seismic zone essay

The — earthquakes[ edit ] The three earthquakes and their major aftershocks[ edit ] December 16,UTC 2: It caused only slight damage to manmade structures, mainly because of the sparse population in the epicentral area. The future location of Memphis, Tennesseeexperienced level IX shaking on the Mercalli intensity scale. A seismic seiche propagated upriver, and Little Prairie a village that was on the site of the former Fort San Fernando, near the site of present-day Caruthersville, Missouri was heavily damaged by soil liquefaction.

The new madrid seismic zone essay

Earthquakes with magnitudes equal to or larger than 2. Click on image to view larger version with legend PDF.

Overview When people think of earthquakes in the United States, they tend to think of the west coast. But earthquakes also happen in the eastern and central U. Untilwhen the dramatic increase in earthquake rates gave Oklahoma the number one ranking in the conterminous U.

The new madrid seismic zone essay

Sinceseismometers, instruments that measure ground shaking, have recorded thousands of small to moderate earthquakes. The faults that produce earthquakes are not easy to see at the surface in the New Madrid region because they are eroded by river processes and deeply buried by river sediment.

1811-1812 Earthquakes

A map of earthquakes epicenters, however, reflects faulting at depth and shows that the earthquakes define several branches of the New Madrid seismic zone in northeastern Arkansas, southwestern Kentucky, southeastern Missouri, and northwestern Tennessee.

Other relatively young faults, which are not necessarily associated with recent earthquakes, or the main seismicity trend in the New Madrid region, are shown in this map. It shows 20 localities where geologists have found and published their findings on faults or evidence of large earthquakes from sand blows; see image to the right.

The three largest earthquakes destroyed several settlements along the Mississippi River, caused minor structural damage as far away as Cincinnati, Ohio, and St.

–12 New Madrid earthquakes - Wikipedia

In the New Madrid region, the earthquakes dramatically affected the The new madrid seismic zone essay. They caused bank failures along the Mississippi River, landslides along Chickasaw Bluffs in Kentucky and Tennessee, and uplift and subsidence of large tracts of land in the Mississippi River floodplain.

One such uplift related to faulting near New Madrid, Missouri, temporarily forced the Mississippi River to flow backwards. In addition, the earthquakes liquefied subsurface sediment over a large area and at great distances resulting in ground fissuring and violent venting of water and sediment.

One account of this phenomena stated that the Pemiscot Bayou "blew up for a distance of nearly fifty miles. The Little Prarie settlement was broken up. The Great Prarie settlement, one of the most flourishing before on the west bank of the Mississippi, was much diminished. New Madrid dwindled to insignificance and decay; the people trembling in their miserable hovels at the distant and melancholy rumbling of the approaching shocks.

Geology The New Madrid seismic zone is located in the northern part of what has been called the Mississippi embayment. The Mississippi embayment is a broad trough filled with marine sedimentary rocks about millions years old and river sediments less than 5 millions years old.

The new madrid seismic zone essay

The upper 30 meters of sediment within the embayment includes sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Mississippi, Ohio, St.

Francis, and White Rivers and their tributaries over the past 60, years.

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Wisconsin valley train deposits formed during the glacial period from 10, years ago, and the Holocene meander belt deposits were laid down during the past 10, years.

The Mississippi embayment is underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks up to millions years old. The Paleozoic rocks are underlain by even older rocks that appear to have been deformed about million years ago when the North American continent almost broke apart.

During the process of continental rifting, a deep valley formed that is bounded by faults and known as the Reelfoot rift. The Reelfoot rift is identified today as a subsurface system of fractures and faults in the earth's crust. New Madrid seismicity is spatially associated with the Reelfoot rift and may be produced by movement on old faults in response to compressive stress related to plate motions.

Geologic and seismotectonic model of the New Madrid region modified from Braile et. Liquefaction The most obvious effects of the earthquakes are the large sandy deposits, known as sand blows, resulting from eruption of water and sand to the ground surface.

This phenomenon called earthquake-induced liquefaction is the process by which water-saturated, sandy sediment temporarily loses its strength due to the buildup of water pressure in the pores between sand grains as seismic waves pass through the sediment.

If the pore-water pressure increases to the point that it equals the weight of the overlying soil, the sediment liquefies and behaves as a fluid. The resulting slurry of water and sediment tends to flow towards the ground surface along cracks and other weaknesses.

Overlying soil "floating" on liquefied sediments moves down even gentle slopes, causing fissuring and lateral and vertical displacements.

This type of landslide known as lateral spreading is commonly responsible for damage to infrastructure bridges, roads, buildings during major earthquakes.

Photograph and schematic cross-section illustrating earthquake-induced liquefaction and formation of sand dikes and sand blows modified from Sims and Garvin, During the and earthquakes, liquefaction and resulting lateral spreading was severe and widespread.

Sand blows formed over an extremely large area about 10, square kilometers. Effects of liquefaction extended about km northeast of the New Madrid seismic zone in White County, Illinois, km to the north-northwest near St.

Louis, Missouri, and km to the south near the mouth of the Arkansas River. In the New Madrid region, sand blows can still be seen on the surface today. In the past, the sand blows were attributed to the earthquakes.THE NEW MADRID EARTHQUAKE OF Some of the most severe earthquakes in the United States occurred not on the Pacific Coast but in the middle of the continent in southeastern Missouri near the town of New Madrid - New Madrid Earthquake introduction.

There are many things that were unusual about the New Madrid earthquakes. New Madrid earthquakes of –12, series of three large earthquakes that occurred near New Madrid, Missouri, between December and February There were thousands of aftershocks, of which 1, were large enough to be felt in Louisville, Kentucky, about miles ( km) away.

The New Madrid seismic zone is located in the northern part of what has been called the Mississippi embayment. The Mississippi embayment is a broad trough filled with marine sedimentary rocks about millions years old and river sediments less than 5 millions years old. Read this essay on New Madrid Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays.

Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at" Its focal point is the New Madrid seismic zone that both threatens and intrigues.

Written to engage a wide range of geologists, from. The New Madrid Seismic Zone (/ ˈ m æ d r ɪ d /), sometimes called the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone and a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes (earthquakes within a tectonic plate) in the southern and midwestern United States, stretching to the southwest from New Madrid, Missouri.

On the Richter scale, it was ~ and five hours later AK experienced an aftershock of a magnitude of ~ A little over a month later on January 23, New Madrid, MO experienced an earthquake with a magnitude of ~, and again on February 7, reaching a magnitude of ~ By March 15, approximately aftershocks had been felt.

The recurrence of major disasters in New Madrid Essay Example | Graduateway Overview of New Madrid New Madrid is a seismic zone and a prolific source of earthquakes and other environmental disasters such as floods and tornados.
Access denied | used Cloudflare to restrict access Southwestern Indiana and northwestern Mississippi are also close enough to receive significant shaking from large earthquakes occurring in the NMSZ.
Earthquakes with magnitudes equal to or larger than 2. Click on image to view larger version with legend PDF.
The New Madrid Fault Line, Where Missouri Stands | Written Essays There are many things that were unusual about the New Madrid earthquakes of
Wisconsin To the Methodist population of the little western towns of New Madrid and Little Prairie, Missouri, the earthquakes of December through February were a demonstration of the wrath of god.
New Madrid Earthquake Essay Example | Graduateway